Freshwater Tidal Wetlands

Fresh-tidal marshes and swamps are widespread in wild as well as urban-industrial areas of the Atlantic Seaboard. The freshwater tidal wetlands of the Hudson River are a long-standing research focus that pre-dated Hudsonia (e.g. Kiviat 1978a). We have been documenting structure and processes in the Tivoli Bays and other wetlands: vegetation composition and production (Kiviat & Beecher, in prep.), flora (Westad & Kiviat 1986, Leonardi & Kiviat 1990, Leonardi 1991), rare plants (Kiviat 1976, Sharma 1993, Sharma & Kiviat 1994), invasive pests (see below), zooplankton (Drill & Schmidt 1988), terrestrial insects (Barbour & Kiviat 1986, K. Schmidt 1986, Barbour & Kiviat 1997, Krause et al. 1997), macrobenthos (Wallhauser & Tashiro 1989), fish communities, spawning habitats, early life stages of fishes, and fish diets (Duryea & Schmidt 1987, Richard & Schmidt 1987, Smith & Schmidt 1988, Anderson & Schmidt 1989, Bohne & Schmidt 1989, Pelczarski & Schmidt 1991, Hankin & Schmidt 1992, R.E. Schmidt 1996), amphibians (Kiviat & Stapleton 1983, Klemens et al. 1987), turtle ecology (Kiviat 1980, Stone et al. 1980, Kiviat & Barbour 1996, Rozycki & Kiviat 1996), birds (Stapleton & Kiviat 1979, Kiviat et al. 1985, Kiviat 1996), muskrat ecology (Kiviat 1978b, 1994; Connors et al. 2000), and estuary-wildlife interactions (Kiviat 1989). Recent studies include a comparison of insects associated with cattail, common reed, and purple loosestrife (Krause et al. 1997), and comparison of purple loosestrife insects in wet meadow and tidal marsh (Thimmayya et al., unpublished data).Hudsonia played an important role in the design of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve (Kiviat et al. 1982). We continue to work with the staff of the Reserve to study Hudson River wetlands and develop new approaches for assessment of wetland function and design of restoration projects. Our goals are to understand the natural history and ecology of fresh-tidal wetlands, and produce information and ideas that can be used by researchers, restorationists, and managers (see Findlay et al., in press; Kiviat et al., in prep.).

References:

Anderson, A.B. & R.E. Schmidt. 1989. Survey of larval and juvenile fish populations in water-chestnut (Trapa natans) beds in Tivoli South Bay, a Hudson River tidal marsh. P. VI-1 to VI-34 in E.A. Blair and J.R. Waldman, eds. Polgar Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, 1988. Hudson River Foundation, New York, NY.

Barbour, S. [J.G.] & E. Kiviat. 1986. A survey of Lepidoptera in Tivoli North Bay (Hudson River Estuary). P. IV-1 to IV-26 in J.C. Cooper, ed. Polgar Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Sanctuary Program, 1985. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Hudson River Foundation, and U.S. Department of Commerce.

Barbour, J.G. & E. Kiviat. 1997. Introduced purple loosestrife as host of native Saturniidae (Lepidoptera). Great Lakes Entomologist 30(3):115-122.

Bohne, C. & R.E. Schmidt. 1989. Larval fish flux between a freshwater tidal marsh and the Hudson River estuary. P. VII-1 to VII-22 in E.A. Blair and J.R. Waldman, eds. Polgar Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, 1988. Hudson River Foundation, New York, NY.

Connors, L, E. Kiviat, P.M. Groffman & R.S. Ostfeld. 2000. Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) disturbance to vegetation and potential net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates in a fresh-tidal marsh. American Midland Naturalist 143:53-63.

Drill, S. & R.E. Schmidt. 1988. The composition of the summer zooplankton community in Tivoli Bays, Hudson River, New York. P. II-1 to II-24 in J.R. Waldman and E.A. Blair, eds. Polgar Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, 1987. Hudson River Foundation, New York, NY.

Duryea, M. & R.E. Schmidt. 1987. Feeding biology of the tessellated darter (Etheostoma olmstedi atromaculatum) at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson River NY. P. III-1 to III-19 in E.A. Blair and J.C. Cooper, eds. Polgar Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, 1986. Hudson River Foundation, New York, NY.

Findlay, S.E.G., E. Kiviat, W.C. Nieder & E.A. Blair. In press. Functional assessment of a reference wetland set as a tool for science, management and restoration. Aquatic Sciences.

Hankin, N. & R.E. Schmidt. 1992. Standing crop of fishes in water-celery beds in the tidal Hudson. P. VIII-1 to VIII-23 in J.R. Waldman & E.A. Blair, eds. Polgar Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, 1991.

Kiviat, E. 1978a. Hudson River east bank natural areas, Clermont to Norrie. Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Va. 115 p.

Kiviat, E. 1978b. Vertebrate use of muskrat lodges and burrows. Estuaries 1:196-200.

Kiviat, E. 1980. A Hudson River tidemarsh snapping turtle population. Transactions of the Northeast Section, the Wildlife Society 37:158-168.

Kiviat, E. 1989. The role of wildlife in estuarine ecosystems. P. 437-475 in J.W. Day, et al. Estuarine Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Kiviat, E. 1994. Muskrat: Manager of the marsh. News from Hudsonia 10(3):1-3.

Kiviat, E. 1996. American goldfinch nests in purple loosestrife. Wilson Bulletin 108(1):182-186.

Kiviat, E. & J.G. Barbour. 1996. Wood turtles in fresh-tidal habitats of the Hudson River. Canadian Field-Naturalist 110(2):341-343.

Kiviat, E., et al. 1982. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Hudson River Estuarine Sanctuary. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. 343 p.

Kiviat, E., S.E.G. Findlay & W.C. Nieder. 2006. Tidal wetlands. P. 279-295 in J.S. Levinton & J.R. Waldman, eds. The Hudson River Estuary. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.

Kiviat, E., R.E. Schmidt & N. Zeising. 1985. Bank swallow and belted kingfisher nest in dredge spoil on the tidal Hudson River. Kingbird 35(1):3-6.

Kiviat, E. & J. Stapleton. 1983. Bufo americanus (American Toad): Estuarine habitat. Herpetological Review 14(2):46.

Klemens, M.W., E. Kiviat & R.E. Schmidt. 1987. Distribution of the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens, in the lower Hudson and Housatonic river valleys. Northeastern Environmental Science 6(2):99-101.

Krause, L.H., C. Rietsma & E. Kiviat. 1997. Terrestrial insects associated with Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia, and Lythrum salicaria in a Hudson River tidal marsh. P. V-1 to V-35 in W.C. Nieder & J.R. Waldman, eds. Final Reports of the Tibor T. Polgar Fellowship Program 1996. Hudson River Foundation and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation – Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve.

Leonardi, L. 1991. Bryophytes of two New York State freshwater tidal swamps. Evansia 8(1):22-25.

Leonardi, L. & E. Kiviat. 1990. Bryophytes of the Tivoli Bays tidal swamps. P. III-1 to III-23 in J.R. Waldman & E.A. Blair, eds. Final Reports of the Tibor T. Polgar Fellowship Program 1989. Hudson River Foundation and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation – Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve.

Pelczarski, K. & R.E. Schmidt. 1991. Evaluation of a pop net for sampling fishes from water-chestnut beds in the tidal Hudson River. P. V-1 to V-33 in E.A. Blair and J.R. Waldman, eds. Final Reports of the Tibor T. Polgar Fellowship Program 1990. Hudson River Foundation, New York, NY.

Richard, E. & R.E. Schmidt, 1987. Feeding ecology of the banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson River New York. P. II-1 to II-20 in E.A. Blair and J.C. Cooper, eds. Polgar Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, 1986. Hudson River Foundation, New York, NY.

Rozycki, C. & E. Kiviat. 1996. A low density, tidal marsh, painted turtle population. P. V-1 to V-35 in E.A. Blair & J.R. Waldman, eds. Final Reports of the Tibor T. Polgar Fellowship Program 1995. Hudson River Foundation and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation – Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve.

Schmidt, K.A. 1986. The life history of the chrysomelid beetle Pyrrhalta nymphaeae (Galerucinae) on water chestnut, Trapa natans (Hydrocaryaceae), in Tivoli South Bay, Hudson River, NY. P. V-1 to V-38 in J.C. Cooper, ed. Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Sanctuary Program, 1985. Hudson River Foundation, New York, NY.

Schmidt, R.E. 1996. Migratory fishes and Hudson River tributaries. News from Hudsonia 12(1):1-5.

Sharma, V. 1993. Habitats of the monkeyflowers Mimulus alatus and Mimulus ringens on the Hudson River. M.S. thesis, Bard College. 93 p.

Sharma, V. & E. Kiviat. 1994. Habitats of the monkeyflowers Mimulus alatus and Mimulus ringens on the Hudson River. P. V-1 to V-36 in Final Reports of the Tibor T. Polgar Fellowship Program 1992. Hudson River Foundation and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation – Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve.

Smith, S. & R.E. Schmidt. 1988. Trophic status of the spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius) in Tivoli North Bay, a Hudson River freshwater tidal marsh. P. VI-1 to VI-25 in J.R. Waldman and E.A. Blair, eds. Polgar Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, 1987. Hudson River Foundation, New York, NY.

Stapleton, J. & E. Kiviat. 1979. Rights of birds and rights of way; vegetation management on a railroad causeway and its effect on breeding birds. American Birds 33(1):7-10.

Stone, W.B., E. Kiviat & S.A. Butkas. 1980. Toxicants in snapping turtles. New York Fish and Game Journal 27(1):39-50.

Wallhausser, I. & J.S. Tashiro. 1989. Studies of the life history and trophic connections of a population of Palaemonetes pugio in the Croton River. P. V-1 to V-40 in E.A. Blair and J.R. Waldman, eds. Polgar Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, 1988. Hudson River Foundation, New York, NY.

Westad, K.E. & E. Kiviat. 1986. Flora of freshwater tidal swamps at Tivoli Bays Hudson River National Estuarine Sanctuary. P. III-1 to III-20 in J.C. Cooper, ed. Polgar Fellowship Reports of the Hudson River National Estuarine Sanctuary Program, 1985. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Hudson River Foundation, and U.S. Department of Commerce.

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