Wetland Human Ecology

In this research, we apply ecological principles to understand interactions of human cultures and wetlands worldwide. We emphasize the tradeoffs of living in or near wetlands: the abundance of resources vs. the costs in flood damage, disease, and other hazards, and the resulting positive and negative influences on cultural evolution and the sustainability of economic development. We have used original and secondary archaeological data, secondary ethnographic data, and original observations. Erik Kiviat (1991) completed his doctoral thesis on this subject. Christopher Lindner, assisted by Bard College students and volunteers, has conducted 7 years of excavation of prehistoric archaeological sites at one of the Hudson River’s largest fresh-tidal wetlands; the goal is a better understanding of the relationship of estuarine and riverine resources to the development of agriculture and sedentism (Waterman 1991, 1992, Waterman & Lindner 1991, Lindner 1992, Lindner 1995, Lindner & Folb 1996, Lindner 2001).


Kiviat, E. 1991. Wetland human ecology. Ph.D. thesis, Union Institute, Cincinnati, OH. 180 p.

Lindner, C.R. 1992. Grouse Bluff: An archaeological introduction. Hudson Valley Regional Review 9(1):25-46.

Lindner, C. 1995. Land use history, flood geomorphism, and archaeological testing. Bard Forum (6):3-16.

Lindner, C. 2001. Hudson Valley Prehistory: Artifacts and Ecofacts. News from Hudsonia 16(1).

Lindner, C. & L. Folb. 1996. Chert microdrills from eastern New York: Use-wear on Bushkill tools that might have made Middlesex beads. P. 141-154 in C. Lindner & E.V. Curtin. A Golden Chronograph for Robert E. Funk. Occasional Publications in Northeastern Anthropology 15.

Waterman, B. 1991. Evaluation of Tivoli Bays archaeology and assessment of its potential to provide paleoenvironmental information. M.S. thesis, Bard College. 55 p.

Waterman, B. 1992. Searching for clues to prehistoric human interaction with the environment at Tivoli Bays. Hudson Valley Regional Review 9(1):77-92.

Waterman, B. & C. Lindner. 1991. Evaluation of Tivoli Bays archaeology and assessment of its potential to provide paleoenvironmental information. P. VIII-1 to VIII-62 in E.A. Blair and J.R. Waldman, eds. Final Reports of the Tibor T. Polgar Fellowship Program 1990. Hudson River Foundation, New York, NY.

Hudsonia, a tax-exempt not-for-profit corporation of the State of New York, classified 501(c)(3) by the Internal Revenue Service, relies on the generous, tax-deductible contributions from members of our community to sustain our research and education. We appreciate your support of our work.